Evaluation of Permanent Supportive Housing in Minnesota

Evaluating Permanent Supportive Housing in Minnesota

Working with the Minnesota Housing Finance Agency (MN Housing), we conducted an evaluation of its permanent supportive housing (PSH) portfolio, looking at characteristics of the properties, supportive services providers, and tenants - and identifying factors associated with successful outcomes. Our partner the Technical Assistance Collaborative led an accompanying study of PSH best practices. The goal of the two projects was to provide actionable insights for MN Housing to make its PSH more accessible, equitable, and responsive to individuals’ and families’ needs.


Leaders of Minnesota’s housing agency used the findings from the evaluation and best practices study to develop a detailed Action Plan for supportive housing development, oversight, and monitoring. 

  • Data Collection and Analysis
  • Evaluation

Conducting a multi-level analysis

To conduct the evaluation, HSRI collected, linked, and analyzed data on characteristics of PSH properties, service providers, and tenants. We obtained quantitative data from the following sources:

  • Property-level data for 261 PSH properties
  • Surveys distributed to staff from MN Housing-funded PSH properties, supportive services providers, and systematic random sample of PSH tenants
  • Comprehensive tenant-level data from the Homeless Management Information System (HMIS)

Examining PSH property characteristics and housing stability

We looked at the different property types for PSH: mixed properties, where fewer than half the units are designated as PSH, and majority-PSH properties, where more than half the units are designated as PSH. Although mixed properties account for 63% of MN Housing's PSH portfolio, more than three-quarters (78%) of the 4,695 PSH units statewide are located in majority-PSH properties. Two-thirds (66%) of the state’s PSH tenants reside in majority-PSH properties, with variation across regions.

While the majority of PSH tenants remained in their housing after one year, and just under half remained in their housing after two years, housing stability differed by property type. That is, a greater percentage of tenants in mixed properties remained housed after one and two years (84% and 64% for one- and two-year housing stability, respectively) compared to tenants in majority-PSH properties (65% and 39%, respectively). Housing stability was similar across racial and ethnic groups, with the exception of less stability among tenants who are Asian or Pacific Islander, although this group was small in size (N=30).

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Identifying factors associated with tenant outcomes

Our report includes a detailed analysis of the characteristics of PSH properties in Minnesota, available supportive services associated with PSH, and tenant characteristics and outcomes. 

We estimated multivariate mixed-effects models to investigate the key factors associated with housing continuity (defined as one-year housing stability or exiting PSH to another permanent housing arrangement). Statistical analysis results showed that at the individual tenant level, being female, African American, or older (ages 55+) increased the likelihood of positive housing continuity, while having a long-term substance use disorder, criminal justice involvement, or long-term homelessness lowered this likelihood. Controlling for all predictors in the model (further described in the report), tenants living in mixed properties had 65% higher odds of one-year housing continuity compared to tenants in majority-PSH properties.

The Report

Minnesota Housing Finance Agency: Evaluation of Permanent Supportive Housing


Minnesota Housing Finance Agency

Project Partner(s):

Technical Assistance Collaborative

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